Grammar is the rules of a language on speaking & writing defined by the native authors. You will be amazed to see how Latin grammar is being adopted into modern English and this will make your learning quite easy.
Key rules to keep in mind when learning Latin grammar
#1. Inflection in Latin grammar
Most of the grammatical rules are similar for Indo-European languages like English, French, German, Russian, Latin, Greek, etc but this will not be quite easy for a beginner learning Latin online.
One of the common features of the above-mentioned language is ‘Inflection’ of nouns, verbs, and adjectives and key points if a word becomes a change in the last according to the function of the sentence.
For example, Man, Man’s, Men & Men’s are the inflection of nouns. Shooter, Longest is the inflection of adjectives. clarify, dignify, magnify are the inflection of the verb.
Latin is considered a heavily inflected language as compared to English. English also uses inflection but in a very limited way. The thumb rule to understand the meaning of a sentence in Latin is to notice the ending of words while helps to relate the words and drive meaning.
In Learning Latin, Vocabulary is also very important but focuses on the ending of a word that will actually help to create & understand sentences.
#2. Parts of Speech in Latin grammar
As a Latin learning beginner, the best method to learn layin grammar to workout with some greek or roman guys. Let’s have a look at some of the ‘part of speech’ examples below:
Domina ( a person ) – use for a Lady (noun)
Pro ( a name ) – used in place of a noun (pronoun)
Adiectum (added) – Used as a describing word (adjective)
Verbum (word) – used for doing something (verb)
Ad (word) – a word added to verb (adverb)
Positum (placed) – word placed before noun or pronoun (preposition)
Coniunctum (joined) – a joining word (conjunction)
Interiectum (insert) – used for exclamation (interjection)
#3. Nouns in Latin grammar
As we already know from childhood, Nouns are used to name, places, things, and concepts. For e.g: David, Paris, Car or Party, etc. Nouns can also be singular or plural e.g Car or Cars. Remember, In Latin, nouns are subjected to the ending of a word, which helps you to understand the meaning of the sentence.
Gender of Nouns:
In English, we classify nouns as per their gender, here ‘masculine’ used for males & ‘feminine’ used for females and ‘neuter’ for others. Let’s have a look at some examples:
What’s wrong with her? She was doing well.
I met a woman. She was nice.
So here you can see, He is used for male and She used for female but both can be used for animals with indeterminate gender. In Latin, Masculine Noun also helps to identify people and animals those instinctively classified as masculine such as:
Miles, soldier | Servus, slave | Lupus, wolf
More rules relating to Gender of Nouns ;
Some inanimate object and concepts are also masculine in Latin:
Murus, wall | Pons, bridge | Annus, year
Similarly, Feminine Noun also helps to identify people and animals those instinctively classified as feminine such as:
Femina, Woman | Uxor, Wife | Regina, Queen
Some inanimate object and concepts are also feminine in Latin:
Flamma, Flame | Urbs, City | Statua, Statue
Besides Masculine & Feminine Gender, the third gender i.e neuter noun also uses:
Bellum, War | Nomen, Name | Templum, Temple
If you’re new to Latin learning, then it will take some time to understand & grasp the concept of gender effectively and you will be used to it after practicing over a period of time.
#4. Pronouns in Latin grammar
Pronouns are used to avoid repetitive nouns throughout the sentence and supply subject to verbs. I, me, with, us are considered first-person pronouns. You is the second-person pronoun. He, him, She, her, They, them are considered third-person pronouns. Remembers In Latin, Pronouns are only used when really necessary to make sense of the sentence.
#5. Adjectives in Latin grammar
Adjectives are used to describe nouns. For E.g: Big Car, His watch, Her Candy, etc. Adjective use with regard to gender, either masculine, feminine or neuter or numbers i.e singular or plural.
#6. Preposition in Latin grammar
A Proposition is a word that is used to accomplish a noun or pronoun with relevant information such as towards, against, among, etc. As prepositions are always used with noun or pronoun with which it is called ‘Preposition Phrase’. For e.g: towards the car, against the man, among students.
#7. Verbs in Latin grammar
A verb is known as the verbum in Latin. It’s the most important attribute of English & Latin both languages. It’s considered a sentence and clauses are incomplete without a verb.
Verb ending plays an important role in the Latin sentence which helps to recognize who is taking the action of the verb. Let’s have a look at some of the examples below:
Person(1st) = o (= l)(Singular) = mus (= we)(Plural)
Person(2nd) = s (= you)(Singular) = tis (= you)(Plural)
Person(3rd) = t (= he/she/it)(Singular) = nt (= they)(Plural)
Tense of Verbs in Latin grammar
A verb is an indicator of an action and who is doing that action. Let’s say i am driving, here at the present moment I is indicating the performance of an action that is driving. This differentiation is called ‘tense’ in sentence making. The extra verb in the sentence is called ‘auxiliary verb’ or we called helping verb. In Latin, Auxiliary means help, so now you may understand from where it has come. Let’s have a look at some of tenses examples:
Porto – Present Tense – E.g: I Carry or I am Carrying
Portabo – Future Tense – E.g: I will carry, I am going to Carry
Portabam – Imperfect Tense – E.g: I was carrying or i used to carry
Portavi – Perfect – E.g: I have carried or I Carried
Portaveram – Pluperfect – E.g: I has Perfect
Portavero – Future Perfect – I will have carried
Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, verbs, adverbs, helping verbs, and prepositions are the major attributes of Latin. Make practice these parts of speech to start Latin learning.